Historical Land Status of the College of Respiratory Therapists of Ontario
Address: 180 Dundas Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8
The offices of the College of Respiratory Therapists are located in land previously occupied by Anishinaabe, Haudenosaunee, Huron-wendat (Wyandot) and Mississaugas of the New Credit territory (via Whose Land) and falls under the ‘Toronto Purchase’ (Treaty 13, 1805).
“The CRTO would like to by acknowledge that we gather on Treaty 13 territory,
the traditional lands of the Anishinaabe, Haudenosaunee, Huron-wendat and Mississaugas of the New Credit.
We recognize the Indigenous People’s long standing presence in this territory.”
The Toronto Purchase was the surrender of the lands from the Mississaugas of New Credit to the British Crown. While there were some disputes following the initial agreement, the purchase was clarified in 1805, and once again in 2010 when a settlement was made with the Government. (via: Whose Land)
Treaty No. 13 (1805) – via http://mncfn.ca/torontopurchase/
The Crown, in the 1780s, recognized the need to secure communication and supply lines to their western outposts and to unite the settlements along Lake Ontario from Kingston to Niagara. In order to meet Crown objectives, Sir John Johnston, Superintendent General of the Indian Department, met in 1787 with a number of Mississaugas at the Bay of Quinte where the Mississaugas of the Credit purportedly sold the lands of the Toronto Purchase Treaty. A supposed deed documenting the sale of the lands was found years later and raised serious questions about the legitimacy of the deal between the Crown and the Mississaugas. Problematically, the deed was found blank and had no description of the land “purchased” by the Crown. Also of concern was that the marks of the chiefs who had agreed to the sale were written on separate pieces of paper and then affixed to the blank deed. An attempt to survey the Toronto Purchase Treaty lands in 1788 met Mississauga opposition indicating that there had been no clear delineation of land boundaries agreed upon by the Crown and the First Nation.
Crown administrators soon doubted the legality of the Toronto Purchase Treaty and were concerned that many settlers did not have legal title to their homesteads. Also disconcerting was the possibility that York, the capital of Upper Canada, was located on land of dubious legal title. For over ten years the Crown failed to act on the dilemma until a new agreement was negotiated with the Mississaugas of the Credit. On August 1, 1805, the Crown purchased 250 830 acres of land for the sum of 10 shillings while the Mississaugas reserved for themselves the right to exclusively fish on Etobicoke Creek.
In 1998, the Mississaugas of the Credit filed a claim against the Government of Canada relative to the 1805 Toronto Purchase Treaty. The Mississaugas contended that the Crown had unlawfully acquired more land- including the Toronto Islands, than had been originally agreed upon in the Toronto Purchase Treaty of 1787. It was further claimed that the Crown had not paid a reasonable sum for the land obtained in the 1805 agreement. In 2010, the Government of Canada settled the Toronto Purchase Claim and the Brant Tract Claim for compensation of $145 million- at that time the largest claims settlement in Canadian history.
The cities of Etobicoke, Toronto, North York, York and Vaughan are located within the boundaries of the Toronto Purchase Treaty lands.
Link for more information: Toronto Purchase Specific Claim – Arriving at an agreement
The closest Aboriginal community to CRTO is Mississauga’s of the New Credit First Nation (http://mncfn.ca/)
- Native-land.ca – https://native-land.ca/
- Whose Land – https://www.whose.land/en/
- Health Council Canada ‘Empathy, dignity and respect – creating cultural safety for Aboriginal people in urban health care’ (December 2012) – https://healthcouncilcanada.ca/files/Aboriginal_Report_EN_web_final.pdf
- YouTube – TVO Docuseries ‘What non-Indigenous Canadians need to know’
‘I believe that most Canadians only have 5 – 10% of the story – the impacts are still obvious and obvert within the nations across this country’
- CBC ‘Want to learn whose Indigenous land you’re on? There’s an app for that’
- (Educational Workshop) 4 Seasons of Reconciliation – Reconciliation Education
4 Seasons of Reconciliation is an online course portal that promotes a renewed relationship between Indigenous Peoples and Canadians through transformative multi-media learning. This educational initiative, developed in collaboration with First Nations University of Canada, is for secondary, post-secondary and the workplace. Each course incorporates teacher guides, slideshows, videos, films within engaging online portals. These courses are a companion piece to our latest reconciliation initiative: a 4-part documentary film series co-created with First Nations University of Canada.
- Native Governance Center ‘Indigenous Land Acknowledgement’